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Open Access

Peer-reviewed

Research Article

  • Yukie Kohata,

    Affiliation Department for 1 last update 04 Jun 2020 of Gastroenterology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan

  • Yasuhiro Fujiwara ,

    for 1 last update 04 Jun 2020 * E-mail:* E-mail: [email protected]

    Heartburn Remedies Acid Reflux Remedies (πŸ”₯ Natural Remedies) | Heartburn Remedies Without Medicationhow to Heartburn Remedies for Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan

  • Takanori Watanabe,

    Heartburn Remedies Herbs (πŸ”΄ Heartburn Treatments) | Heartburn Remedies Natural Heartburn Remedieshow to Heartburn Remedies for Affiliation Uehonmachi-Watanabe Clinic, Osaka, Japan

  • Masanori Kobayashi,

    Affiliation Department of Medical Education and General Practice, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan

  • Yasuhiko Takemoto,

    Affiliation Department of Medical Education the 1 last update 04 Jun 2020 and General Practice, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan Affiliation Department of Medical Education and General Practice, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan

  • Noriko Kamata,

    Heartburn Remedies Naturally Treat (β˜‘ Best Drinks For) | Heartburn Remedies Heartburn Medicinehow to Heartburn Remedies for the 1 last update 04 Jun 2020 AffiliationAffiliation Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan

  • Hirokazu Yamagami,

    Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan

  • Tetsuya Tanigawa,

    Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan

  • Masatsugu Shiba,

    the 1 last update 04 Jun 2020 AffiliationAffiliation Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan

  • Toshio Watanabe,

    Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan

  • Kazunari Tominaga,

    Heartburn Remedies Side Effects (πŸ‘ 10 Drinks To Avoid) | Heartburn Remedies Remedieshow to Heartburn Remedies for Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan

  • Taichi Shuto,

    Affiliation Department of Medical Education and General Practice, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan

  • Tetsuo Arakawa

    Heartburn Remedies Disease (πŸ”₯ Warnings) | Heartburn Remedies Which Foods To Avoidhow to Heartburn Remedies for Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan

  • Yukie Kohata, 
  • Yasuhiro Fujiwara, 
  • Takanori Watanabe, 
  • Masanori Kobayashi, 
  • Yasuhiko Takemoto, 
  • Noriko Kamata, 
  • Hirokazu Yamagami, 
  • Tetsuya Tanigawa, 
  • Masatsugu Shiba, 
  • Toshio Watanabe
x

Correction

1 Mar 2016: Kohata Y, Fujiwara Y, Watanabe T, Kobayashi M, Takemoto Y, et al. (2016) Correction: Long-Term Benefits of Smoking Cessation on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life. PLOS ONE 11(3): e0150554. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150554 View correction

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Abstract

Objective

Smoking is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Varenicline, a nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is used to aid smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the long-term benefits of smoking cessation on GERD and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL).

Methods

Patients treated with varenicline were asked to fill out a self-report questionnaire about their smoking habits, gastrointestinal symptoms, and HR-QOL before and 1 year after smoking cessation. The prevalence of GERD, frequency of symptoms, and HR-QOL scores were compared. We also investigated associations between clinical factors and newly-developed GERD.

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A total of 141 patients achieved smoking cessation (success group) and 50 did not (failure group) at 1 year after the treatment. The GERD improvement in the success group (43.9%) was significantly higher than that in the failure group (18.2%). The frequency of reflux symptoms significantly decreased only in the success group. There were no significant associations between newly developed GERD and clinical factors including increased body mass index and successful smoking cessation. HR-QOL significantly improved only in the success group.

Conclusions

Smoking cessation improved both GERD and HR-QOL. Smoking cessation should be recommended for GERD patients.

Citation: Kohata Y, Fujiwara Y, Watanabe T, Kobayashi M, Takemoto Y, Kamata N, et al. (2016) Long-Term Benefits of Smoking Cessation on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life. PLoS ONE 11(2): e0147860. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147860

Editor: Ken-ichi Mukaisho, Shiga University of Medical science, JAPAN

Received: October 15, 2015; Accepted: January 8, 2016; Published: February 4, 2016

Copyright: Β© 2016 Kohata et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Heartburn Remedies Treatment Of (⭐️ Home Remedies For) | Heartburn Remedies What Is The Besthow to Heartburn Remedies for Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Heartburn Remedies Remedy Relief (⭐️ 10 Foods To Eat) | Heartburn Remedies 10 Drinks To Avoidhow to Heartburn Remedies for Funding: The authors have no support or funding to report.

Competing for 1 last update 04 Jun 2020 interests: Prof. Arakawa received lecture fees from Otsuka and Eisai and research grants from Otsuka, Eisai, Astellas, Abbott Japan, Takeda, Dainippon Sumitomo, and Daiichi Sankyo. The remaining authors have no conflicts to disclose. This does not alter the authors''s manual. Boston, MA: The Health Institute. 1994.

  • 15. McHorney CA, Ware JE Jr., Raczek AE. The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs. Med Care. 1993;31(3):247–63. Epub 1993/03/01. pmid:8450681.
  • 16. Hallan A, Bomme M, Hveem K, Moller-Hansen J, Ness-Jensen E. Risk factors on the development of new-onset gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. A population-based prospective cohort study: the HUNT study. The American journal of gastroenterology. 2015;110(3):393–400; quiz 1. Epub 2015/02/11. pmid:25665934.
  • 17. Trudgill NJ, Smith LF, Kershaw J, Riley SA. Impact of smoking cessation on salivary function in healthy volunteers. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 1998;33(6):568–71. Epub 1998/07/21. pmid:9669624.
  • 18. Kahrilas PJ, Gupta RR. The effect of cigarette smoking on salivation and esophageal acid clearance. J Lab Clin Med. 1989;114(4):431–8. Epub 1989/10/01. pmid:2794756.
  • 19. Dennish GW, Castell DO. Inhibitory effect of smoking on the lower esophageal sphincter. N Engl J Med. 1971;284(20):1136–7. Epub 1971/05/20. pmid:5553487.
  • 20. Kahrilas PJ, Gupta RR. Mechanisms of acid reflux associated with cigarette smoking. Gut. 1990;31(1):4–10. Epub 1990/01/01. pmid:2318431; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1378332.
  • 21. Schindlbeck NE, Heinrich C, Dendorfer A, Pace F, Muller-Lissner SA. Influence of smoking and esophageal intubation on esophageal pH-metry. Gastroenterology. 1987;92(6):1994–7. Epub 1987/06/01. pmid:3569773.
  • 22. Waring JP, Eastwood TF, Austin JM, Sanowski RA. The immediate effects of cessation of cigarette smoking on gastroesophageal reflux. The American journal of gastroenterology. 1989;84(9):1076–8. Epub 1989/09/01. pmid:2773902.
  • 23. Kadakia SC, Kikendall JW, Maydonovitch C, Johnson LF. Effect of cigarette smoking on gastroesophageal reflux measured by 24-h ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring. The American journal of gastroenterology. 1995;90(10):1785–90. Epub 1995/10/01. pmid:7572895.
  • 24. Hays JT, Croghan IT, Baker CL, Cappelleri JC, Bushmakin AG. Changes in health-related quality of life with smoking cessation treatment. Eur J Public Health. 2012;22(2):224–9. Epub 2010/10/05. pmid:20884658.
  • 25. Piper ME, Kenford S, Fiore MC, Baker TB. Smoking cessation and quality of life: changes in life satisfaction over 3 years following a quit attempt. Ann Behav Med. 2012;43(2):262–70. Epub 2011/12/14. pmid:22160762; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3298628.
  • 26. Kinoshita Y, Ashida K, Miwa H, Hongo M. The impact of lifestyle modification on the health-related quality of life of patients with reflux esophagitis receiving treatment with a proton pump inhibitor. The American journal of gastroenterology. 2009;104(5):1106–11. Epub 2009/04/02. pmid:19337239.
  • Competing interests: Prof. Arakawa received lecture fees from Otsuka and Eisai and research grants from Otsuka, Eisai, Astellas, Abbott Japan, Takeda, Dainippon Sumitomo, and Daiichi Sankyo. The remaining authors have no conflicts to disclose. This does not alter the authors''s manual. Boston, MA: The Health Institute. 1994.
    • 15. McHorney CA, Ware JE Jr., Raczek AE. The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs. Med Care. 1993;31(3):247–63. Epub 1993/03/01. pmid:8450681.
    • 16. Hallan A, Bomme M, Hveem K, Moller-Hansen J, Ness-Jensen E. Risk factors on the development of new-onset gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. A population-based prospective cohort study: the HUNT study. The American journal of gastroenterology. 2015;110(3):393–400; quiz 1. Epub 2015/02/11. pmid:25665934.
    • 17. Trudgill NJ, Smith LF, Kershaw J, Riley SA. Impact of smoking cessation on salivary function in healthy volunteers. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 1998;33(6):568–71. Epub 1998/07/21. pmid:9669624.
    • 18. Kahrilas PJ, Gupta RR. The effect of cigarette smoking on salivation and esophageal acid clearance. J Lab Clin Med. 1989;114(4):431–8. Epub 1989/10/01. pmid:2794756.
    • 19. Dennish GW, Castell DO. Inhibitory effect of smoking on the lower esophageal sphincter. N Engl J Med. 1971;284(20):1136–7. Epub 1971/05/20. pmid:5553487.
    • 20. Kahrilas PJ, Gupta RR. Mechanisms of acid reflux associated with cigarette smoking. Gut. 1990;31(1):4–10. Epub 1990/01/01. pmid:2318431; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1378332.
    • 21. Schindlbeck NE, Heinrich C, Dendorfer A, Pace F, Muller-Lissner SA. Influence of smoking and esophageal intubation on esophageal pH-metry. Gastroenterology. 1987;92(6):1994–7. Epub 1987/06/01. pmid:3569773.
    • 22. Waring JP, Eastwood TF, Austin JM, Sanowski RA. The immediate effects of cessation of cigarette smoking on gastroesophageal reflux. The American journal of gastroenterology. 1989;84(9):1076–8. Epub 1989/09/01. pmid:2773902.
    • 23. Kadakia SC, Kikendall JW, Maydonovitch C, Johnson LF. Effect of cigarette smoking on gastroesophageal reflux measured by 24-h ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring. The American journal of gastroenterology. 1995;90(10):1785–90. Epub 1995/10/01. pmid:7572895.
    • 24. Hays JT, Croghan IT, Baker CL, Cappelleri JC, Bushmakin AG. Changes in health-related quality of life with smoking cessation treatment. Eur J Public Health. 2012;22(2):224–9. Epub 2010/10/05. pmid:20884658.
    • 25. Piper ME, Kenford S, Fiore MC, Baker TB. Smoking cessation and quality of life: changes in life satisfaction over 3 years following a quit attempt. Ann Behav Med. 2012;43(2):262–70. Epub 2011/12/14. pmid:22160762; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3298628.
    • 26. Kinoshita Y, Ashida K, Miwa H, Hongo M. The impact of lifestyle modification on the health-related quality of life of patients with reflux esophagitis receiving treatment with a proton pump inhibitor. The American journal of gastroenterology. 2009;104(5):1106–11. Epub 2009/04/02. pmid:19337239.