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J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012 Apr; 18(2): 187–193.
Published online 2012 Apr 9. What Would Cause Tightness In Chest Diet (🔴 Foods To Eat And Avoid) | What Would Cause Tightness In Chest 6 Natural Remedieshow to What Would Cause Tightness In Chest for doi: 10.5056/jnm.2012.18.2.187
PMCID: the 1 last update 12 Jul 2020 PMC3325304PMC3325304
PMID: 22523728

Ahmet Uyanikoglu

1Department of Gastroenterology, Harran University Faculty of Medicine, Sanliurfa, Turkey.

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Filiz Akyuz

2Department of Gastroenterohepatology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Fatih Ermis

2Department of Gastroenterohepatology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Serpil Arici

2Department of Gastroenterohepatology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Gurhan Bas

3Department of General Surgery, Vakif Gureba Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Mustafa Cakirca

4Department of Internal Medicine, Vakif Gureba Training for 1 last update 12 Jul 2020 and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.4Department of Internal Medicine, Vakif Gureba Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

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What Would Cause Tightness In Chest Best Drinks For (👍 Disease) | What Would Cause Tightness In Chest Disease Treatmenthow to What Would Cause Tightness In Chest for Bulent Baran

2Department of Gastroenterohepatology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Zeynel Mungan

2Department of Gastroenterohepatology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

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1Department of Gastroenterology, Harran University Faculty of Medicine, Sanliurfa, Turkey.
2Department of Gastroenterohepatology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
3Department of General Surgery, Vakif Gureba Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
4Department of Internal Medicine, Vakif Gureba Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
Corresponding author.
Correspondence: Ahmet Uyanikoglu, MD. Department of Gastroenterology, Harran University Faculty of Medicine, Sanliurfa 63300, Turkey. Tel: +90-542-345-5513, Fax: +90-414-315-1181, [email protected]
Received 2011 Oct 3; Revised 2012 Jan 24; Accepted 2012 Feb 1.
Copyright © 2012 The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Abstract

What Would Cause Tightness In Chest Best Practices (👍 9 Ways To Relieve) | What Would Cause Tightness In Chest 23+ Home Remedieshow to What Would Cause Tightness In Chest for Background/Aims

The aim of this study is to investigate the reflux patterns in patients with galbladder stone and the change of reflux patterns after cholecystectomy in such patients.

Methods

Fourteen patients with cholecystolithiasis and a control group including 10 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this prospective study. Demographical findings, reflux symptom score scale and 24-hour impedance pH values of the 14 cholecystolithiasis cases and the control group were evaluated. The impedance pH study was repeated 3 months after cholecystectomy.

Results

Age, gender, and BMI were not different between the two groups. Total and supine weakly alkaline reflux time (%) (1.0 vs 22.5, P = 0.028; 201.85 vs 9.65, P = 0.012), the longest episodes of total, upright and supine weakly alkaline reflux mediums (11 vs 2, P = 0.025; 8.5 vs 1.0, P = 0.035; 3 vs 0, P = 0.027), total and supine weakly alkaline reflux time in minutes (287.35 vs 75.10, P = 0.022; 62.5 vs 1.4, P = 0.017), the number of alkaline reflux episodes (162.5 vs 72.5, P = 0.022) were decreased with statistical significance. No statistically significant difference was found in the comparison of symptoms between the subjects in the control group and the patients with cholecystolithiasis, in preoperative, postoperative and postcholecystectomy status.

Conclusions

What Would Cause Tightness In Chest Diagnosis (🔴 Best Home Remedies) | What Would Cause Tightness In Chest Simples Stepshow to What Would Cause Tightness In Chest for Significant reflux symptoms did not occur after cholecystectomy. Post cholecystectomy weakly alkaline reflux was decreased, but it was determined that acid reflux increased after cholecystectomy by impedance pH-metry in the study group.

Keywords: Cholecystectomy, Cholecystolithiasis, Gastroesophageal reflux, Impedance pH

Introduction

The treatment of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis is cholecystectomy.1 Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually applied. Postcholecystectomy syndrome may occur after cholecystectomy. Postcholecystectomy syndrome is a heterogeneous condition and may occur depending on many causes. One of the suggested reasons is the increase in gastroesophageal reflux diseases.2-4

Relationship between the gallbladder stone and the reflux; whether reflux increases after cholecystectomy is a controversial subject.5,6 In current studies, assessments of reflux were performed by different techniques such as interview, endoscopy and 24-hour pH monitoring. These evaluations are often useful in detecting acid reflux,6-8 whereas it is known that alkaline bile reflux may be detectable in stomach after cholecystectomy.9-11 Determination of bile reflux in esophagus after cholecystectomy is possible and informative. This situation may be important, because the alkaline reflux is accepted as a contributing factor for Barrett''s scale was applied to the patients before the operation and also at the third month after the operation.

Patients were evaluated with the 24-hour esophageal impedance-pH meter without disrupting their daily routine activities. Catheters were removed at 8:00 am the next morning after their insertions. Three months after the surgery, all patients were reassessed with the symptom''s scale and the impedance-pH meter results were compared among the patients in the preoperative and postoperative period as well as with the control group.

Twenty-four Hour Ambulatory Esophageal Impedance-pH Metry

Ambulatory 24 hours esophageal impedance-pH metry was performed with a mobile recording device (Ohmega Impedance-ambulatory pH meter; MMS, Enschede, Netherlands) and the catheter had 8 impedance ring and 1 antimony pH measurement loop (Versa Flex Z-Impedance pH metry disposable catheters; Alpine bio Med, Fountain Valley, CA, USA). Impedance-pH metry catheters were passed transnasally under topical anaesthesia and positioned to record pH 5 and impedance at 3, 5, 7, 9, 15 and 17 cm proximal to lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in the esophageal body at 8:00 am. Gastroscopy was performed and LES was determined. Postero-anterior chest X-ray graphy was taken. Catheter was not removed until the following day at 8:00 am. After a 24-hour investigation, recordings were uploaded onto a personal computer. All data were interpreted under a related program manually by an expert. Gastroesophageal reflux was defined as a sequential orally progressing drop in impedance to less than 50% of baseline values starting distally (3 cm above the LES) and propagating retrogradely to at least the next 2 more proximal impedance rings. According to the corresponding pH change, impedance detected reflux was classified as follows:

  1. Acid reflux: pH decrease below 4 for a period of at least 4 seconds during reflux or at least 1 unit decrease in pH for at least 4 seconds when pH is already below 4 (acid re-reflux) (superimposed reflux) were defined as acid reflux.

  2. Weakly acidic reflux: At least 1 unit of pH decrease for at least 4 seconds, while the maintenance of pH between 4-7 during the reflux were defined as weak acid reflux.

  3. Weakly alkaline (non-acid) reflux: pH above 7 during reflux was the 1 last update 12 Jul 2020 defined as weak alkaline reflux.18Weakly alkaline (non-acid) reflux: pH above 7 during reflux was defined as weak alkaline reflux.18

Each reflux episode was classified as liquid, gas or mixed. Liquid, gas, mixed, acid, weak acid and weak alkaline reflux, the percentage of time period of pH < 4 relative to the total time, the number of episodes with pH < 4 were evaluated seperately for 24 hours recording period in the supine and standing positions.

The number and percentage of reflux episodes extending to the proximal (the number of reflux episodes extending 15 cm above the esophagus sphincter), bolus clearance time, the number of swallows and the DeMeester score were evaluated as a 24 hours record.19

Symptom'' symptom scales were reevaluated postoperatively in the 3rd month as control impedance-pH measurements. Patients''s parameters (Table 2).

Even though the acid reflux increased after cholecystectomy, no statistical significance was detected in comparison with the control group. Although a decrease was determined in the postoperative alkaline reflux recordings, it showed no significant difference with the control group. In addition, the preoperative and postoperative average symptom scores presented no significant differences (Table 3).

Table 3

Comparison of Symptom Severity Scores in Pre-cholecystectomy, Post-cholecystectomy Status and Control

What Would Cause Tightness In Chest GERD Diet (🔥 Soothe The Pain) | What Would Cause Tightness In Chest Treatmenthow to What Would Cause Tightness In Chest for Values represented as a median (range). aNon-parametric Mann-Whitney U test (P > 0.05).

Individual differences between the preoperative and postoperative number of episodes pH < 4 presented no significant difference. Even though there were differences for 1 last update 12 Jul 2020 in average De Meester scores, these were not statistically significant.Individual differences between the preoperative and postoperative number of episodes pH < 4 presented no significant difference. Even though there were differences in average De Meester scores, these were not statistically significant.

Discussion

Gallbladder stone is a common condition and cholecystectomy is frequent operation.1,17 As bile acid''s esophagus (P < 0.010). With these findings, it was interpreted that contaminated gastric fluid predisposed to stricture and Barrett''s esophagus with dysplasia and adenocarcinoma arising from experimental acid or alkaline reflux model. J Gastroenterol. 2001;36:595–600. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

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